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1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
9. Conventional Treatment of Cancer
10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
11. Mesothelioma
12. Skin Cancer
13. Bone Cancer
14. Leukaemia
15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)
16. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML)
17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) & Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemias (ANLL)
18. Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)
19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
35. Carcinoma of the Stomach
36. Liver Cancer
37. Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer
38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment
Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum


Carcinomas of the colon and the rectum are discussed under one heading of colorectal carcinoma. Carcinoma of the colon is more common as compared to carcinoma of the rectum. Colorectal carcinoma usually occurs during 40 to 60 years of age. Its incidence is higher in industrialised and densely populated areas than the rural areas. It has been observed that diet and nutrition play an important role in genesis of the colorectal carcinoma. Fast food items, which are rich in fat and poor in fibre, may cause colorectal carcinoma. Fried and grilled food is another cause of the colorectal carcinoma.

Risk factors of colorectal carcinoma include:


  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • The positive family history of colorectal carcinoma.


Studies have revealed that there is a much higher risk of the colorectal carcinoma in those women, who have a positive family history of the breast cancer.

Symptoms of the colon carcinoma are variable, depending on site of the tumour, for example carcinoma of the ascending colon presents with fatigue and weakness (due to iron deficiency anaemia), whereas carcinoma of the descending colon presents with altered bowel habits and colicky pain. Carcinoma of the colon may lead to intestinal obstruction and perforation resulting into peritonitis. Carcinoma of the rectum usually presents with bleeding or mucus discharge per rectum. There may be abdominal distension, tenesmus, urgency and incomplete bowel clearance. Sometimes, there is formation of an abscess or fistula. Colorectal carcinoma is usually localised at the time of diagnosis. In advanced stages of the disease, there may be palpable mass in the abdomen. Colorectal carcinoma usually metastasises to the liver.

Staging of the colorectal carcinoma is done as follows:

  • In stage 0 (carcinoma in situ) of colorectal carcinoma, the tumour is localised within the inner lining of the colon or the rectum.
  • In stage I, the tumour spreads to deeper layers of the colon or the rectum.
  • In stage II, the colorectal carcinoma spreads to adjacent tissues without involving the regional lymph nodes.
  • In stage III, the tumour involves the regional lymph nodes.
  • In stage IV, the colorectal carcinoma metastasises to other parts of the body.
  • Recurrent colorectal carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.

Procedures used in diagnosis of the colorectal carcinoma include digital rectal examination, proctoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, stool examination for occult blood, CEA estimation, CT scan, colonoscopy and biopsy.

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