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Other Articles

1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
9. Conventional Treatment of Cancer
10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
11. Mesothelioma
12. Skin Cancer
13. Bone Cancer
14. Leukaemia
15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)
16. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML)
17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) & Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemias (ANLL)
18. Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)
19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
35. Carcinoma of the Stomach
36. Liver Cancer
37. Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer
38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment

Carcinoma of the Oropharynx:

Carcinoma of the oropharynx (middle part of the throat) is usually a squamous cell carcinoma. Heavy smoking and poor oral hygiene are the major risk factors of the oropharyngeal carcinoma. Symptoms of the oropharyngeal carcinoma include persistent sore throat, foreign body sensation or lump in the throat, enlargement of the neck lymph nodes and change of voice. There may be difficulty in swallowing & breathing, earache and weight loss.

Staging of the carcinoma of the oropharynx is done as follows:

  • In stage I of the oropharyngeal carcinoma, the tumour is less than 2 cm in size.
  • In stage II, the tumour is more than 2 cm but less than 4 cm in size.
  • In stage III, the oropharyngeal carcinoma involves a single lymph node on same side of the neck.
  • In stage IV, the tumour invades adjacent tissues along with involvement of multiple lymph nodes of the neck; or the tumour metastasises to distant organs of the body.
  • Recurrent oropharyngeal carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.

Diagnosis of the oropharyngeal carcinoma is confirmed by laryngoscopy and biopsy.

Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx:

Carcinoma of the nasopharynx (upper part of the throat) is mostly a squamous cell carcinoma. It usually originates in the fossa of Rosenmuller. Risk factors of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma include Epstein Barr Virus infection and deficiency of vitamin C.

Carcinoma of the nasopharynx usually presents with a lump in the nasopharynx that may lead to the nasal obstruction, nasal voice, dysphagia, epistaxis, toothache, earache and hearing loss. There may be involvement of the cervical and the retropharyngeal lymph nodes. The tumour may invade foramen lacerum involving trigeminal and facial nerves. Carcinoma of the nasopharynx may spread posteriolaterally to the parapharyngeal space, involving the 9th, 10th, 11th and the 12th cranial nerves along with mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma may invade inferiorly into the oropharynx, superiorly into the base of skull, laterally into the Eustachian tubes and anteriorly into the nasal cavity.

Staging of the carcinoma of the nasopharynx is done as follows:

  • In stage I, the tumour is localised in the nasopharynx at one site only.
  • In stage II, the tumour is located at more than one sites in the nasopharynx.
  • In stage III, the tumour invades into the nasal cavity or the oropharynx; or involves a single lymph node on same side of the neck.
  • In stage IV, the nasopharyngeal carcinoma invades the skull or metastasises to distant parts of the body.
  • Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.

Procedures used to diagnose carcinoma of the nasopharynx include ENT examination, X-rays, nasopharyngoscopy and biopsy.

Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx:

Carcinoma of the hypopharynx (lower part of the throat) is a squamous cell carcinoma that originates in the pyriform sinus, posterior pharyngeal wall and postcricoid area. Risk factors of the hypopharyngeal carcinoma include chronic smoking, chronic alcoholism and iron deficiency anaemia.

Carcinoma of the hypopharynx remains asymptomatic in early stages. In later stages, a mass in the neck may be noticed as the first sign of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Other symptoms include foreign body sensation in the throat, change of voice, pain in the throat, dysphagia, bloodstained saliva and weight loss. The hypopharyngeal carcinoma usually spreads to the larynx, thyroid cartilage and the oesophagus by submucosal infiltration.

Staging of the carcinoma of the hypopharynx is done as follows:

  • In stage I of the hypopharyngeal carcinoma, the tumour is localised at one site in the hypopharynx.
  • In stage II, the tumour invades the adjacent tissues.
  • In stage III, there is immobilisation of the larynx on the same side; or there is involvement of a lymph node on same side of the neck.
  • In stage IV, the primary tumour grows massively in size and invades soft tissues & bones of the neck; or there is involvement of multiple lymph nodes of the neck; or the tumour metastasises to distant parts of the body.
  • Recurrent hypopharyngeal carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.

Procedures used in the diagnosis of the hypopharyngeal carcinoma includes laryngoscopy, CT scan and biopsy.

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