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1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
9. Conventional Treatment of Cancer
10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
11. Mesothelioma
12. Skin Cancer
13. Bone Cancer
14. Leukaemia
15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)
16. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML)
17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) & Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemias (ANLL)
18. Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)
19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
35. Carcinoma of the Stomach
36. Liver Cancer
37. Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer
38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment
Carcinoma of the Oesophagus


Carcinoma of the oesophagus (the food pipe) is more common in men as compared to women. It usually occurs after 45 years of age. The incidence is higher in China, Japan and Russia. The oesophageal carcinoma arising from upper two third portion of the oesophagus is usually a squamous cell carcinoma while that arising from lower one third of the oesophagus is an adenocarcinoma. There has been a constant rise in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus in recent years. Alcohol and tobacco are considered as the most common causes of oesophageal carcinoma. It has been observed that more a person smokes, greater is the risk of oesophageal carcinoma. Studies have shown that there is 30 times higher risk of the oesophageal carcinoma in those persons, who have the habit of smoking as well as drinking as compared to the teetotallers. Certain nutritional factors such as deficiency of vitamin A, vitamin C, riboflavin and iron may cause oesophageal carcinoma.

Risk factors of oesophageal carcinoma include:

  • Oesophageal inflammation
  • Oesophageal stricture
  • Tylosis
  • Sideropenic dysphagia
  • Achalasia

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Progressive dysphagia, weight loss and regurgitation (oesophageal pseudo-vomiting) are the most common symptoms of oesophageal carcinoma. Sometimes, there is a sensation of pressure or burning in the throat. There may be a pain in chest or back due to the spread of the tumour into the mediastinum. Involvement of recurrent laryngeal nerve may lead to hoarseness of the voice. Direct spread of the tumour into the tracheobronchial tree may form tracheo-oesophageal fistula, which is characterised by the initiation of cough on swallowing. The tracheo-oesophageal fistula may lead to choking and pneumonia. Carcinoma of the oesophagus usually metastasises to the supraclavicular lymph nodes, cervical lymph nodes and the liver.


Staging of oesophageal carcinoma is done as follows:

  • In stage 0 of the oesophageal carcinoma (carcinoma in situ), the tumour is localised within inner layers of the oesophagus.
  • In stage I, the tumour involves deeper layers of the oesophagus but the size of tumour is less than 5 cm.
  • In stage II, a larger portion of the oesophagus (sometimes the entire circumference) is affected along with spread to the regional lymph nodes.
  • In stage III, the tumour infiltrates the adjacent tissues and involves the lymph nodes extensively.
  • In stage IV of the oesophageal carcinoma, the tumour metastasises to distant organs of the body.
  • Recurrent oesophageal carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.


Procedures used in diagnosis and evaluation of the oesophageal carcinoma include barium swallow study, CT scan, endoscopy (oesophagoscopy) and biopsy.

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