Paranasal sinuses (maxillary sinus, sphenoidal sinus, ethmoidal sinus and frontal sinus) are small hollow spaces around the nose that are lined with the mucus secreting cells. Carcinoma of the paranasal sinus is a squamous cell carcinoma. It usually affects above 40 years of age. Carcinoma of the paranasal sinus is more common in men as compared to women. Exposure to dust is one of the major risk factors of carcinoma of the paranasal sinus.
Carcinoma of the paranasal sinus remains asymptomatic during early stages. Symptoms that usually appear in advanced stages of the disease include rhinitis, sinusitis, recurrent nasal bleeding, nasal obstruction, local pain, non-healing ulcer in the nose, proptosis and swelling over the maxillary antrum or inner canthus of the eye. Carcinoma of the paranasal sinus may invade the anterior and middle cranial fossae, orbit, cheek and the oral cavity. Invasion into the orbit may lead to diplopia and other visual disturbances. Inferior invasion of the tumour may lead to toothache, whereas posterior invasion of the tumour may cause headache and the cranial nerve palsy. Involvement of the infraorbital nerve may lead to malar hyperaesthesia.
Staging of the carcinoma of the paranasal sinus is done as follows:
The diagnosis of carcinoma of the paranasal sinus is confirmed by biopsy.
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