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Other Articles

1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
9. Conventional Treatment of Cancer
10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
11. Mesothelioma
12. Skin Cancer
13. Bone Cancer
14. Leukaemia
15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)
16. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML)
17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) & Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemias (ANLL)
18. Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)
19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
35. Carcinoma of the Stomach
36. Liver Cancer
37. Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer
38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment
Cervix Cancer


Carcinoma of the cervix is the most common cancer among women in developing countries. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from squamocolumnar junction of the endocervical canal constitute about 85 per cent of the cervical carcinomas. Carcinoma of the cervix occurring during the childbearing age usually remains confined to the intraepithelial layers, whereas in the elderly women, it is invasive in character. Risk factors include smoking, chronic cervicitis, cervical dysplasia, human papilloma virus infection and the multiparity.


Symptoms of the cervical carcinoma include post-coital spotting, metrorrhagia and cervical ulcerations. Invasive carcinoma of the cervix may present with bloody, purulent, odorous and non-pruritic discharge. Other symptoms include weight loss and haemorrhage. Involvement of the rectum may lead to painful defecation. There may be a formation of recto-vaginal fistula. Involvement of the bladder may lead to haematuria, cystitis and vesico-vaginal fistula. Obstruction in the ureters may lead to hydronephrosis and impaired renal functions. Oedema in the legs may occur due to vascular and lymphatic stasis. Involvement of the lumbosacral plexus may lead to backache.


Staging of the cervical carcinoma is done as follows:


  • In stage 0 (carcinoma in situ), the tumour is localised in the lining of cervix.
  • In stage I-A, there is minor infiltration of the tumour into deeper tissues of the cervix.
  • In stage I-B, the tumour extensively invades deeper tissues of the cervix.
  • In the stage II-A, the cervical carcinoma spreads to upper two-third portion of the vagina.
  • In stage II-B, the carcinoma spreads to the tissues around the cervix.
  • In stage III, the cervical carcinoma spreads throughout the pelvis (including bones of the pelvis) and lower part of the vagina.
  • In stage IV, the cervical carcinoma metastasises to distant organs of the body.
  • Recurrent cervical carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.


Procedures used in diagnosis of the cervical carcinoma include Pap test, Schiller test, colposcopy, dilatation & curettage (D&C) and biopsy. All women above the age of 35 years are advised to undergo Pap test every year to detect cancer of the cervix. This is a simple test, in which microscopic examination of the cervical cells is conducted. The Pap test was developed by George Pappainecolau of Cornell University in 1928 and has been extensively used since 1943. This test has already saved the lives of thousands of women throughout the world.

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