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1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
9. Conventional Treatment of Cancer
10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
11. Mesothelioma
12. Skin Cancer
13. Bone Cancer
14. Leukaemia
15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)
16. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML)
17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) & Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemias (ANLL)
18. Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)
19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
35. Carcinoma of the Stomach
36. Liver Cancer
37. Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer
38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment

Primary cancers of the liver include:

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma - arising from the liver parenchymal cells
  • Cholangiocarcinoma - arising from the bile ducts
  • Angiosarcoma - arising from vascular tissue of the liver
  • Hepatoblastoma - arising from one or more of the three primary embryonic germ layers

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer comprising about 90 percent of all primary cancers of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma is more common in males as compared to females. Incidence of the hepatocellular carcinoma is higher in Asia and Africa. Studies have shown that carriers of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses have hundred times higher risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cirrhosis of the liver (hereditary or alcoholic) is another major risk factor. The food containing aflatoxins, nitrogenous compounds and arsenic may lead to genesis of the hepatocellular carcinoma.


Jaundice is the most common symptom of hepatocellular carcinoma. Other symptoms include abdominal pain, abdominal distension, weakness, weight loss, and cachexia. Hepatocellular carcinoma may present as a solitary mass or multiple scattered nodules in the liver. A bruit can be heard while auscultating over the liver area because the hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly vascular tumor. Sometimes, the hepatocellular carcinoma presents with a massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage. There may be portal or hepatic vein thrombosis leading to ascites. Systemic manifestations such as hypoglycaemia and hypercalcaemia may occur. In most of the cases, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) the level is raised. Hepatocellular carcinoma is usually detected in advanced stages of the disease. A sudden deterioration of condition in the patient suffering from liver cirrhosis should always be suspected of hepatocellular carcinoma. 

Staging of the hepatocellular carcinoma is done as follows:

  • In the localised resectable stage of hepatocellular carcinoma, the tumour is confined to a portion of the liver and its complete surgical resection is possible.
  • In the localised unresectable stage, the tumour is localised in the liver but its complete surgical resection is not possible.
  • In the advanced stage, the hepatocellular carcinoma affects a major portion of the liver and metastasises to distant parts of the body.
  • Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery by the initial treatment.

Procedures used in the diagnosis and evaluation of the hepatocellular carcinoma include ultrasound, CT scan, estimation of serum AFP, angiography, bone scan, laparoscopy, and biopsy.


This content is for information and educational purposes only and should not be perceived as medical advice. Please consult a certified medical or healthcare professional before making any decision regarding your health using the content above.

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