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1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
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19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
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38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment


Primary tumours of the testis occur in men usually during 20 to 30 years of age. About 90 per cent primary testicular tumours are germ cell tumours, which include seminoma and non-seminoma. The remaining 10 per cent testicular tumours are non-germ cell tumours, which include Leydig cell tumour, Sertoli cell tumour and gonadoblastoma. The exact cause of testicular tumours is not fully understood but there are certain risk factors, which include:

 

  • Testicular atrophy - Due to trauma or infection
  • Cryptorchidism
  • Klinefelter's syndrome - Small testes, enlarged breasts and lack of secondary sex characters in males
  • Gonadal aplasia - Failure of the testicular development
  • Hermaphroditism
  • Low weight at birth

 

Primary testicular tumours usually present with painless swelling of the testis. There may be a heaviness in the scrotum, weight loss and fatigue. Intratesticular hemorrhage may occur leading to pain. There may be obstruction of inferior vena cava leading to oedema in the lower extremities. Involvement of retroperitoneal lymph nodes may cause backache. There may be pulmonary metastases leading to cough. The cerebral metastases may occur leading to a headache. In advanced stages of the germ cell testicular tumour, there may be gynaecomastia and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy.

 

  • In stage I, the primary testicular tumour is localised within the testis.
  • In stage II, the tumour involves abdominal lymph nodes.
  • In stage III, the tumour involves other organs of the body such as the liver and the lungs.
  • A recurrent testicular tumour is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.

 

Procedures used in the diagnosis of a primary testicular tumour includes:

 

  • Ultrasound
  • CT scan
  • Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
  • Lymphangiography
  • MRI

 

Raised serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are indicators of non-seminomas. The testicular biopsy is generally not recommended because cutting through an outer capsule of the testis may contribute to metastases of the tumour. Since most of the testicular tumours are malignant, the standard surgical procedure is to remove the affected testis and send it for histopathological examination.

 

Testicular self-examination (TSE) is recommended to all the males once in a month to detect tumour of the testis at an early stage. TSE should be done after a warm water bath that relaxes the scrotum, making it easier to feel any abnormal growth. One should look for a lump in the testis; enlargement of the testis; heaviness in the scrotum; and pain or tenderness in the testis or the scrotum.

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