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1. Cancertame Ayurvedic Formulation
2. What is Chemotherapy?
3. What is Radiotherapy?
4. Role of Ayurveda in Cancer Treatment
5. Genesis of Cancer
6. Early Detection of Cancer
7. Diet, Nutrition & Cancer
8. Tobacco Smoking & Cancer
9. Conventional Treatment of Cancer
10. Soft Tissue Sarcoma
11. Mesothelioma
12. Skin Cancer
13. Bone Cancer
14. Leukaemia
15. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL)
16. Chronic Myelogenous Leukaemia (CML)
17. Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL) & Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemias (ANLL)
18. Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia (AML)
19. Lymphoma
20. Multiple Myeloma
21. Breast Cancer
22. Prostate Cancer
23. Oral Cancer (Carcinoma of the Cheek, Lips & Tongue)
24. Carcinoma of the Salivary Gland
25. Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus
26. Carcinoma of Pharynx (Oropharynx, Nasopharynx and Hypopharynx)
27. Carcinoma of the Larynx
28. Brain & Spinal Cord Tumours
29. Primary Tumours of the Brain
30. Metastases in the Brain
31. Carcinoma of the Oesophagus
32. Thyroid Cancer
33. Bronchogenic Carcinoma (Lung Cancer)
34. Secondary Cancers of the Lung
35. Carcinoma of the Stomach
36. Liver Cancer
37. Gallbladder & Biliary Tract Cancer
38. Pancreatic Cancer
39. Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma and Nephroblastoma)
40. Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer
41. Carcinoma of Colon & Rectum
42. Primary Tumours of the Testis
43. Ovarian Cancer (Stromal, Germ Cell and Krukenberg's Tumour)
44. Carcinoma of Uterus
45. Cervix Cancer
46. Paediatric Cancers
47. AIDS Related Cancers
48. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site (CUPS)
49. Role of Nutrition in Cancer Treatment
50. Chinese Medicine in Cancer Treatment
Urinary Tract (Transitional Cell Carcinoma) & Bladder Cancer

 

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) originates in the transitional cells (cells lining the urinary tract). The common sites of transitional cell carcinoma are the renal pelvis, ureter and the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is more common in males as compared to females. Risk factors include urinary tract infection, analgesic nephropathy, smoking and industrial toxins. Symptoms of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis include an abdominal lump, lumbar pain, renal colic, polyuria, dysuria, haematuria and hypertension. Occlusion of the pelvic ureteric junction may lead to hydronephrosis. The tumour usually spreads by implantation (seeding) forming multiple tumours in the ureter and the bladder.


Staging of transional cell carcinoma is done as follows:

  • In the localised stage of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, the tumour is localised in the kidney.
  • In the regional stage, the tumour invades the tissue around the kidney or spreads to the pelvic lymph nodes.
  • In the metastatic stage, the tumour spreads to distant parts of the body.
  • Recurrent transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.


Procedures used in diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis include CT scan, MRI, ureteroscopy and biopsy.

 

Carcinoma of the Bladder

Carcinoma of the bladder is the second most common urological cancer. Incidence of the bladder carcinoma is threefold higher in males as compared to females. It usually occurs around the age of 60 years. Carcinoma of the bladder is of three types, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type comprising about 90 per cent of the bladder cancers. Risk factors include urinary stasis, urinary tract infection, analgesic nephropathy, smoking, industrial toxins, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy. It has been observed that hairdressers, machine operators, metal workers and painters are more likely to develop the bladder carcinoma.

 

Carcinoma of the bladder usually presents with painless haematuria, lumbar pain, strangury, dysuria, anaemia, cachexia and irritating voiding symptoms such as frequency & urgency. There may occur hydronephrosis. The pelvic infiltration of the tumour may cause pelvic pain and low backache. There may be a pain in the suprapubic region, groin, anus, perineum and the thighs. Carcinoma of the bladder usually metastasises to the liver, supraclavicular lymph nodes and the pelvic lymph nodes.


Staging of carcinoma of the bladder is done as follows:

  • In stage 0 (carcinoma in situ), the tumour is localised to the inner lining of the bladder.
  • In stage I, the tumour infiltrates a little deeper.
  • In stage II, the tumour spreads to the inner layers of the bladder muscles.
  • In stage III, the tumour spreads throughout the muscular wall and involves adjacent tissues.
  • In stage IV, carcinoma of the bladder metastasises to distant organs of the body.
  • Recurrent carcinoma of the bladder is the one that reappears after an apparent recovery in response to the initial treatment.


Procedures used in diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma include urine analysis, flow cytometry, IVP, CT scan, cystoscopy and biopsy.

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