Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) originates in the transitional cells (cells lining the urinary tract). The common sites of transitional cell carcinoma are the renal pelvis, ureter and the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma is more common in males as compared to females. Risk factors include urinary tract infection, analgesic nephropathy, smoking and industrial toxins. Symptoms of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis include an abdominal lump, lumbar pain, renal colic, polyuria, dysuria, haematuria and hypertension. Occlusion of the pelvic ureteric junction may lead to hydronephrosis. The tumour usually spreads by implantation (seeding) forming multiple tumours in the ureter and the bladder.
Staging of transional cell carcinoma is done as follows:
Procedures used in diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis include CT scan, MRI, ureteroscopy and biopsy.
Carcinoma of the bladder is the second most common urological cancer. Incidence of the bladder carcinoma is threefold higher in males as compared to females. It usually occurs around the age of 60 years. Carcinoma of the bladder is of three types, i.e. transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The transitional cell carcinoma is the most common type comprising about 90 per cent of the bladder cancers. Risk factors include urinary stasis, urinary tract infection, analgesic nephropathy, smoking, industrial toxins, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy. It has been observed that hairdressers, machine operators, metal workers and painters are more likely to develop the bladder carcinoma.
Carcinoma of the bladder usually presents with painless haematuria, lumbar pain, strangury, dysuria, anaemia, cachexia and irritating voiding symptoms such as frequency & urgency. There may occur hydronephrosis. The pelvic infiltration of the tumour may cause pelvic pain and low backache. There may be a pain in the suprapubic region, groin, anus, perineum and the thighs. Carcinoma of the bladder usually metastasises to the liver, supraclavicular lymph nodes and the pelvic lymph nodes.
Staging of carcinoma of the bladder is done as follows:
Procedures used in diagnosis of the bladder carcinoma include urine analysis, flow cytometry, IVP, CT scan, cystoscopy and biopsy.
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